Mapping Masculinities: A Framework Analysis of Factors Associated with Violence against Women in Cambodia
This report serves as a second round of analysis of qualitative data on masculinities and gender-based violence conducted by Gender and Development for Cambodia (GAD/C) in 2009 to further explore men and women‟s experiences of violence through a framework analysis of gender, violence and masculinities in the Cambodia context. From 2008 to 2009, Gender and Development Cambodia (GAD/C), with support from Partners for Prevention and the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), conducted qualitative field research on gender and violence in urban and rural Cambodia. The field research methodology included 12 focus-group discussions and 40 in-depth interviews with men and women in rural and urban settings, as well as four key informant interviews representing the civil society sector and the local and state political sectors. A preliminary analysis of this research, Deoum Troung Pram Hath in Modern Cambodia: A Qualitative Exploration of Gender Norms, Masculinity and Domestic Violence, was released in December 2010 highlighting findings on Cambodian constructions of masculinity, attitudes toward violence against women and inter-related factors that augment the risk of violence. Using the ecological model as a way to map the social context in which experiences of violence occur, the following analysis explores the Cambodia qualitative data through the four levels of the model: individual, household, community and social, to demonstrate what factors create an environment in which violence against women takes place in Cambodia. Furthermore, it unpacks the linkages that exist between these levels (cited as Ecological Model Links in the footnotes) to present a comprehensive picture, based on the data set, of the intersections and interactions of men and women‟s experiences of gender inequality, socially predominant notions of masculinities and violence in Cambodia.